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  • Knee Arthritis

    Knee Osteoarthritis Knee Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).

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  • Patellofemoral Arthritis Patellofemoral Arthritis

    Patellofemoral arthritis is an inflammatory condition characterized by loss of the smooth cartilage between the kneecap (patella) and the underlying femoral (thigh) bone in the knee joint. When the articular cartilage wears out, the underlying bones rub against each other, causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and restricted movement.

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  • Knee Fracture

    Fractures of the Patella Patellofemoral Arthritis

    Kneecap is a small bone present in the front of your knee where the thigh bone meets the shinbone. It provides protection to your knee and attachment to muscles in the front of the thigh. An injury to the knee can result in a break or fracture of the patella.

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  • Periprosthetic Knee Fractures Periprosthetic Knee Fractures

    Periprosthetic knee fractures are usually treated surgically, under general or regional anesthesia. The presence of multiple bone fragments, bone cement or weak bones increases the complexity of the surgery.

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  • Fractures of the Tibia Fractures of the Tibia

    Fractures of the tibia vary depending on the force involved and are classified based on the location of the fracture, the pattern of the fracture, and exposure of the fracture site.

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  • Distal Femur Fracture Distal Femur Fracture

    Distal femur fractures may be caused by high energy injuries such as a fall from a height or a motor vehicle accident. Patients with osteoporosis, bone tumors or infections, or a history of knee replacement are more prone to femur fractures.

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  • Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsion Fracture Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsion Fracture

    Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is the avulsion (tearing away) of the tibial eminence.

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  • Tibial Plateau Fracture Tibial Plateau Fracture

    A tibial plateau fracture is a crack or break on the top surface of the tibia or shinbone in the knee joint. The fracture most often occurs following a high-intensity trauma or injury from the impaction of the femoral condyles over the tibial plateau.

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  • Tibial Shaft Fracture Tibial Shaft Fracture

    A tibial shaft fracture is a crack or break in the middle section of the tibia bone due to severe trauma.

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  • Knee Stress Fractures Knee Stress Fractures

    Stress fractures of the patella or knee are very rare. Approximately two out of 10,000 athletes may experience a patella stress fracture. Initial symptoms include activity-related pain and then a fatigue stress fracture after minor trauma.

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  • Tibial Eminence Fractures Tibial Eminence Fractures

    A tibial eminence fracture is break or crack in the bony attachment of the ACL to the tibia. The fracture can be a contact or non-contact injury and occurs at the base of the tibial eminence.

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  • Stress Fracture of the Tibia Stress Fracture of the Tibia

    A stress fracture of the tibia or shinbone is a thin fracture, also called a hairline fracture that occurs in the tibia due to excess stress or overuse. The tibia is a weight-bearing bone in which stresses can accumulate from activities such as running and jumping.

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  • Knee Injuries and Tears

    Knee Ligament Injuries Knee Ligament Injuries

    Knee ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect one bone to another bone. The ligaments of the knee stabilize the knee joint. There are two important groups of ligaments that hold the bones of the knee joint together, collateral and cruciate ligaments - medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).

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  • Meniscal Injuries Meniscal Injuries

    Meniscal injuries are one of the most common injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age but are more common in athletes involved in contact sports. The meniscus has no direct blood supply and for that reason, when there is an injury to the meniscus, healing is difficult.

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  • PCL Injuries PCL Injuries

    PCL injuries are very rare and more difficult to detect than other knee ligament injuries. Cartilage injuries, bone bruises, and ligament injuries often occur in combination with PCL injuries.

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  • Posterolateral Corner Injuries Posterolateral Corner Injuries

    Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries are defined as damage to a complex area of the knee formed by the association of 3 main structures of the knee, namely popliteus tendon, popliteofibular ligament, and lateral (fibular) collateral ligament.

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  • Knee Sports Injuries Knee Sports Injuries

    Sports trauma or sports injuries refer to injuries caused while playing indoor or outdoor sports and exercising. Sports trauma can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises.

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  • Meniscus Root Tear Meniscus Root Tear

    Meniscal root tears are characterized as soft tissue or bony root avulsion injuries or radial tears located within 1 cm of meniscus root attachment.

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  • Women and ACL Injuries Women and ACL Injuries

    ACL Injuries in Women are more common in women than men due to anatomical differences which have a smaller ACL, a wider pelvis and an increased incidence of inward knee pointing.

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  • Multiligament Knee Injuries Multiligament Knee Injuries

    Multiligament knee injuries are injury to more than one knee ligament is called a multiligament knee injury and may occur during sports or other physical activities.

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  • Articular Cartilage Injury Articular Cartilage Injury

    Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping. Articular cartilage does not have a direct blood supply to it so has little capacity to repair itself.

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  • ACL Tears ACL Tears

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major ligaments of the knee. It is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone). The ACL prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur.

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  • Meniscal Tears Meniscal Tears

    A meniscal tear is a common knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee causes the meniscus to tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age.

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  • MCL Tears MCL Tears

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee.

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  • Patellar Instability Patellar Instability

    Patellar instability is a any damage to the supporting ligaments may cause the patella to slip out of the groove either partially (subluxation) or completely (dislocation). This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the kneecap in place. Once damaged, these soft structures are unable to keep the patella (kneecap) in position.

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  • Multiligament Instability Multiligament Instability

    Multiligament instability is a complex joint of the body that is vital for movement. The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). They play an important role in maintaining the stability of the knee.

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  • Patellofemoral Instability Patellofemoral Instability

    Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.

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  • Lateral Patellar Instability Lateral Patellar Instability

    Lateral patellar instability is defined as a lateral shift or displacement of the patella (kneecap) as a result of disruptive changes in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial patellar retinaculum.

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  • Posterolateral Instability Posterolateral Instability

    Posterolateral instability, also known as posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI), is a common pattern of knee instability that results from injuries to the structures that support the outside of the knee joint, the posterolateral corner.

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  • Medial Patellar Instability Medial Patellar Instability

    Medial patellar instability is a disabling condition characterized by medial subluxation of the patella which occurs as a complication of lateral retinacular release surgery. Lateral retinacular release is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of lateral patellar instability.

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  • Other Common Conditions

    Knee Pain Knee Pain

    Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals of various age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts your quality of life. An injury or disease of the knee joint or any structure surrounding the knee can result in knee pain. A precise diagnosis of the underlying cause is important to develop an appropriate treatment plan.

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  • Jumper's Knee Jumper's Knee

    Jumper’s knee, also known as patellar tendinitis, is inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in the extension of the lower leg.

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  • Kneecap Bursitis Kneecap Bursitis

    Kneecap Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa. Inflammation of the bursa in front of the kneecap (patella) is known as kneecap bursitis or prepatellar bursitis.

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  • Iliotibial Band Syndrome Iliotibial Band Syndrome

    An iliotibial band is a tough group of fibers that runs from the iliac crest of the hip along the outside of the thigh, till the outer side of the shinbone, just below the knee joint. Its function is to coordinate with the thigh muscles and provide stability to the knee joint.

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  • Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

    Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply.

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  • Medial Patellofemoral Ligament (MPFL) Tears Medial Patellofemoral Ligament (MPFL) Tears

    The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is a ligament that joins the kneecap (patella) to the thighbone (femur). Ligaments are fibrous connective tissue that attach bones to other bones.

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  • Unstable Knee Unstable Knee

    An unstable knee can be caused by the sudden twisting of the knee, tears of the meniscus, ligament or capsule, osteoarthritis of the knee (wear and tear of the cushioning cartilage tissue between the bones) and sports injuries.

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  • Knee Sprain Knee Sprain

    Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range, causing the ligaments to tear.

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  • MCL Sprains MCL Sprains

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL), a band of tissue present on the inside of your knee joint, connects your thighbone and shinbone (bone of your lower leg). The MCL maintains the integrity of the knee joint and prevents it from bending inward.

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  • Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation Patellar Dislocation Patellofemoral Dislocation

    Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella moves out of the patellofemoral groove, (trochlea) onto the bony head of the femur. If the kneecap partially comes out of the groove, it is called subluxation; if the kneecap completely comes out, it is called dislocation (luxation).

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  • Chondral or Articular Cartilage Defects Chondral or Articular Cartilage Defects

    The articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of your body during activities such as running and jumping.

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  • Patellar Tendon Rupture Patellar Tendon Rupture

    The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out. Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the top portion of the tibia (shinbone).

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  • Lateral Meniscus Syndrome Lateral Meniscus Syndrome

    Lateral meniscus syndrome is characterized by an injury caused by the tearing of the cartilage tissue or a rare case of a congenital abnormality called a discoid meniscus, which results in knee pain.

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  • Osteonecrosis of the Knee Osteonecrosis of the Knee

    Osteonecrosis is a condition in which the death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women. Women over 60 years of age are commonly affected, three times more often than men.

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  • Knee Angular Deformities Knee Angular Deformities

    Angular deformities of the knee are variations in the normal growth pattern during early childhood and are common during childhood.

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  • Osteochondral Defect of the Knee Osteochondral Defect of the Knee

    An osteochondral defect, also commonly known as osteochondritis dissecans, of the knee refers to a damage or injury to the smooth articular cartilage surrounding the knee joint and the bone underneath the cartilage. The degree of damage may range from a rupture of the cartilage to a slight crack of the bone to a piece of the bone breaking off within the joint.

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  • Knee Dislocation Knee Dislocation

    Knee dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint, namely the femur or thigh bone get separated from the shin bone. This can cause serious damage to the nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments surrounding the knee, leading to a decline in strength and overall health of the leg.

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  • Patellar Tracking Disorder/Patellar Maltracking Patellar Tracking Disorder Patellar Maltracking

    Patellar tracking disorder, also known as patellar maltracking, is a condition in which the kneecap (patella) moves sideways from its groove when the leg is bent or straightened.

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  • Patellar Tendinitis Patellar Tendinitis

    Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper's knee", is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

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  • Medial Meniscus Syndrome Medial Meniscus Syndrome

    Medial meniscal injuries are usually considered as either traumatic or degenerative. Whilst degenerate tears may present with a gradual history of increasing symptoms, traumatic injuries will usually occur as the knee is extended and rotated from a flexed position against resistance.

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  • Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to a condition in older children and teenagers caused by excessive stress to the patellar tendon (located below the kneecap). Participants in sports such as soccer, gymnastics, basketball, and distance running are at higher risk for this disease.

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  • Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Repair Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Repair

    A quadriceps tendon rupture is defined as a tear of the quadriceps tendon as a result of a traumatic incident.The quadriceps tendon is a strong rope-like fibrous tissue located at the top of the patella or kneecap that connects the quadriceps muscles to the kneecap.

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  • Anterior Knee Pain Anterior Knee Pain

    Anterior knee pain is characterized by chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals. Anterior knee pain refers to various conditions, which include runner's knee or patellar tendinitis, and chondromalacia of the patella.

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  • Runner's Knee Runner's Knee

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner’s knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is associated with a number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella.

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  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to an overuse injury that occurs in the knee of growing children and adolescents. This is caused by inflammation of the tendon located below the kneecap (patellar tendon). Children and adolescents who participate in sports such as soccer, gymnastics, basketball, and distance running are at a higher risk of this disease.

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  • Providence
  • Desert Valley Hospital
  • Victor Valley Global Medical Center
  • Barstow Community Hospital
  • Bear Valley Community Hospital
  • California Orthopaedic Association
  • American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons
  • American Shoulder And Elbow Surgeons
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • San Bernardino County Medical Society
  • California Medical Association